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Indian Classical Music and Sikh Kirtan

   
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Glossary


ABHOG: The fourth and final part of dhrupad composition.
ALAAP: Improvised, slow and introductory prelude of a raga or song.
ALANKAR: An exercise in the melodic phrase of a raga in definite patterns also called palta.
AMSA: The most important or pivotal note in a raga, also called vadi.
ANAHAD NAD: Unmanifested, unstruck and divine sound.
ANTRA: Second or subsequent portion a Hindustani compostion.
ANUVADI: Notes in a raga other than vadi and samvadi, an assonant.
ARAVA: Pentatonic raga, also called odava.
AROHA: The ascending scale of a raga.
ASTHAI: First part of a Hindustani compostion, also called sthayi.
AVARTAN: A complete circle of time-measure.
AVAROHA: The descending scale of a raga.
BANDISH: A composition (vocal or musical) fixed in a rhythmic pattern
BAUL: Bengali folk musician who sings simple and religious melodies.
BEEN (BIN): North Indian name for the veena.
BHAJAN: Popular devotional and religious song, a hymnal composition.
BOLS: Drum syllables or phrases (like dhin, dha, tin trikat).
CHARTAL: Drone strings in instruments like sitar, sarod, etc.
CHIKARI: A session of sacred Sikh music conducted by ragis, in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahab.
DADRA: A Hindustani musical style; Hindustani tal of six matras with 12 beats.
DEEPCHAND: A Hindustani tal of 14 matras with four beats.
DESHI: Folk music, regional tunes.
DHAMAR: Hindustani fixed composition; Tal of 15 matras with four beats.
DHAVANI: A sound, also suggestive power of words and symbols.
DHUNI: Tuned based on a raga.
DHRUPAD: A Hindustani form of fixed composition in four parts.
DILRUBA: A stringed instrument combining features of sitar and sarangi and played with a bow.
DRONE: A instrument which plays the tonic or the dominant note (as for instance the tampura).
DRUT: Fast tempo or quick rhythmic beats of tal.
EKTAL: A rhythm of 12 matras wth four beats.
ESRAJ: A stringed instrument less complicated than the dilruba, played separately or as an accompaniment.
GAIKI: Manner and style of singing, also a school or tradition of music.
GHARANA: A tradition or school of music, a musical guild with distinct style of performing.
GHAZAL: A light classical composition in Urdu or Persian, generally dealing with a theme of love.
GRAMA: Ancient scale of music.
GURBANI: The composition of the Sikh Gurus, also called Bani.
GURU: Teacher or relgious preceptor. One of the Sikh Gurus; duration or two short syllables.
HOLI/HORI: Song of Holi festival; Dhamar composition sung in Hori style.



Glossary


ABHOG: The fourth and final part of dhrupad composition.
ALAAP: Improvised, slow and introductory prelude of a raga or song.
ALANKAR: An exercise in the melodic phrase of a raga in definite patterns also called palta.
AMSA: The most important or pivotal note in a raga, also called vadi.
ANAHAD NAD: Unmanifested, unstruck and divine sound.
ANTRA: Second or subsequent portion a Hindustani compostion.
ANUVADI: Notes in a raga other than vadi and samvadi, an assonant.
ARAVA: Pentatonic raga, also called odava.
AROHA: The ascending scale of a raga.
ASTHAI: First part of a Hindustani compostion, also called sthayi.
AVARTAN: A complete circle of time-measure.
AVAROHA: The descending scale of a raga.
BANDISH: A composition (vocal or musical) fixed in a rhythmic pattern
BAUL: Bengali folk musician who sings simple and religious melodies.
BEEN (BIN): North Indian name for the veena.
BHAJAN: Popular devotional and religious song, a hymnal composition.
BOLS: Drum syllables or phrases (like dhin, dha, tin trikat).
CHARTAL: Drone strings in instruments like sitar, sarod, etc.
CHIKARI: A session of sacred Sikh music conducted by ragis, in the presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahab.
DADRA: A Hindustani musical style; Hindustani tal of six matras with 12 beats.
DEEPCHAND: A Hindustani tal of 14 matras with four beats.
DESHI: Folk music, regional tunes.
DHAMAR: Hindustani fixed composition; Tal of 15 matras with four beats.
DHAVANI: A sound, also suggestive power of words and symbols.
DHUNI: Tuned based on a raga.
DHRUPAD: A Hindustani form of fixed composition in four parts.
DILRUBA: A stringed instrument combining features of sitar and sarangi and played with a bow.
DRONE: A instrument which plays the tonic or the dominant note (as for instance the tampura).
DRUT: Fast tempo or quick rhythmic beats of tal.
EKTAL: A rhythm of 12 matras wth four beats.
ESRAJ: A stringed instrument less complicated than the dilruba, played separately or as an accompaniment.
GAIKI: Manner and style of singing, also a school or tradition of music.
GHARANA: A tradition or school of music, a musical guild with distinct style of performing.
GHAZAL: A light classical composition in Urdu or Persian, generally dealing with a theme of love.
GRAMA: Ancient scale of music.
GURBANI: The composition of the Sikh Gurus, also called Bani.
GURU: Teacher or relgious preceptor. One of the Sikh Gurus; duration or two short syllables.
HOLI/HORI: Song of Holi festival; Dhamar composition sung in Hori style.

   
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